316 (B) AND WATER SUSTAINABILITY

//316 (B) AND WATER SUSTAINABILITY

316 (B) AND WATER SUSTAINABILITY

Presentations made in Track I at EUEC 2015, San Diego, California.

BurnsMcDonnellLogo

I3.1 Review & Implications of the Final Section 316(b) Rule for Existing Cooling Water Intakes
Gregory Howick, Senior Aquatic Ecologist, Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, Inc.; Steve Gruber
Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intakes use the best technology
available (BTA) to minimize adverse environmental impacts on aquatic organisms. The electric
utility industry now faces numerous challenges associated with the new cooling water intake rule
implementing Section 316(b) at existing facilities & new production units at existing facilities that have
cooling water intakes that withdraw more than 2 million gallons per day from water of the United States,
of which 25 percent or more is used for cooling. Subject facilities must implement one of seven options
that are either deemed BTA for impingement mortality minimization or that can be demonstrated to
meet the annual impingement mortality standard of 24 percent. The BTA for entrainment mortality is to
be decided by the discharge permitting agency based on a site-specific, cost/benefit evaluation of
alternatives including retrofitting closed-cycle cooling & fine-mesh screens. This presentation will discuss
the complexities of the new rule, the potential implications on existing generating stations, & effective
options for achieving compliance with the new regulations.

evoquaI3.2 Compliance to EPA 316(b) utilizing Option 5 Modified Traveling Screens
Sean McGaughran, Global Product Manager – Intake Systems, Evoqua Water Technologies, LLC
Modified Traveling Screens – Option 5 (of the 7 impingement mortality compliance options from
the final rule) is the technology EPA identified as the basis for the BTA impingement mortality
standard. Survey data provided by industry shows that 93 percent of generators and 73 percent of
manufacturers already have screens, and EPA believes the vast majority of facilities will be able to
upgrade their screens to modified traveling screens with fish return EPA has concluded that modified
traveling screens, such as modified Ristroph screen and equivalent modified traveling screens with
fish-friendly fish returns, are a best technology available for minimizing impingement mortality. As part
of the compliance requirements, a two year biological data study must be completed in conjunction
with an Optimized performance study in order to optimize the equipment to operate below the 24%
impingement mortality requirement. Fish Return systems make up a significant portion of the “fishfriendly”
return system. A facility will need to determine the effect of the following that all have an
impact on survivability: velocity, length, turns and bends, and drop heights. Considerations when
choosing Modified Traveling Screens: Is there an adequate power supply for a fish protection system?
Are the civil works compatible with the new screen/fish return system? Do you have adequate pump
capacity for fish return? What are the fish trough discharge requirements?”

AldenI3.3 Design of Fish Return Systems & Operations/Maintenance Guidelines
Nathaniel Olken, Project Engineer, ALDEN; Dan Giza & John Black, Alden Research Laboratory, Inc.; Douglas Dixon, EPRI
New rules for the implementation of Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act were issued by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in May 2014. These rules provided several compliance
alternatives for reducing impingement mortality at existing cooling water intake structures (CWIS). One
option requires the installation of fish-friendly traveling water screens (TWS) with a fish return system. A
critical part of an effective TWS installation is a system for returning collected organisms safely back to
the source waterbody. Little guidance is provided in Rule as to what constitutes a fish-friendly fish return
system. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has updated & developed a guidance document
for the design, operation, & maintenance of fish return systems. The design guidelines are based on
criteria developed previously by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), criteria developed by
federal & state organizations for other fish conveyance systems, a review of existing literature on fish
stressors, & previous laboratory & field evaluations of fish return systems. In addition, site-visits to facilities
with fish returns & consultation with personnel in charge of their operation & maintenance (O&M)
provided the basis for the O&M guidelines.

BurnsMcDonnellLogo13.4 Intake Retrofits with Retrievable Cylindrical Screens
Jason Eichenberger, Senior Civil Engineer, Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, Inc.; Terry Larson, Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, Inc.; Karen Hinkforth, We Energies
In order to comply with regulatory requirements and reduce impingement, We Energies will be retrofitting
the cooling water intake structures at their Valley Power Plant with passive wedgewire screens. Both
traditional stationary screens with compressed-air cleaning and brush-cleaned retrievable screen
systems were evaluated. The retrievable system has several advantages over a fixed air-cleaned
system, including fewer impacts to navigation traffic, less piping, lower O&M costs, and simplified visual
inspections to verify screen cleanliness. Preliminary design was completed in 2013 and the installation
and operation plan was submitted to WDNR. Each of the two intake structures will be retrofit with three
66” diameter screens that are 211” long. The screens will be installed on a track system and equipped
with screen hoists, isolation gates, electrical motors to rotate the screen cylinders, and fixed brushes
to clean the screens. The maximum through-screen velocity will be slightly less than 0.5-fps with two
of the three screens in service allowing for one screen to be removed for inspection or maintenance
while the plant remains online. The project will also install VFDs for the circulating water pumps, allowing
We Energies to optimize the cooling flow for varying plant loads and reduce potential entrainment
mortality impacts.

intraloxI3.5 Evaluation of Fish Survival from a Hydrolox Traveling Water Screen & Fish Return System at Alabama Power’s Barry Generating Station
Brett DeRousse, National Account Manager, Intralox; Doug Dixon, EPRI; Justin Mitchell, Alabama Power
EPA 316(b) was released on May 19th, 2014 and will affect more than 1,000 power and industrial
manufacturing facilities in the United States. Of those facilities, it is thought that greater than 50% will
modify their existing intakes to use a fish friendly traveling water screen and fish return system. This
presenation will cover the all aspects of modifying a CWIS intake at a power plant using traveling
water screens. While the fish survival data that is provided will be from the EPRI Co-funded study of the
Hydrolox technology at plant Barry, there are many other aspects of the presentation that focus on the
following: Fish return system design and installation; Fish sampling strategies and techniques; Aquaria
set up and maintenance; Optimization of the screens for maximum fish survival. This presentation will
provide valuable information on designing, constructing, and implementing a fish test as required by 316b.

ectI3.6 Consideration of Fine Mesh Screens as Entrainment BTA under the Existing Facilities Rule
Mark Gerath, Principal Scientist – Water Resources, Environmental Consulting & Technology; John Burnett, HDR; Jon Black, Alden
The 316(b) existing facilities rule gives the NPDES Director authority to define BTA for entrainment
mortality (EM) on a site-specific basis. For facilities with actual intake flows in excess of 125 MGD, this
involves submission of reports that consider the engineering feasibility, costs and benefits, and impacts
of measures that may reduce EM. One of the technologies that must be considered is the use of
fine-mesh screens (FMS), defined by the rule as those with an opening size of 2 mm or less, including
both wedgewire screens and fine-mesh panels on traveling water screens. While evaluation of closed
cycle cooling as BTA includes clear social costs and benefits, the feasibility, costs, and benefits of FMS
may be unclear at the outset of the analysis. The assessment will require at least initial consideration
of multiple FMS options at each facility. The literature suggests that their feasibility and performance
will vary widely across facilities given differences in existing intake configurations, intake flow rates and
velocities, characteristics of the source waterbodies (e.g., local hydraulics, water quality, icing, debris
loading, sediments), the opening sizes and the sizes of organisms targeted for protection, and the
economic value of entrained organisms. This presentation will provide a framework for evaluating FMS
at existing facilities that considers the factors listed above for panels on traveling water screens and
wedgewire screens.

VeritasI4.1 316b Cooling Tower Efficiency Impacts and Related Social Costs
Matthew Bingham, Principal Economist, Veritas Economics; Grant Crownfield
Recently finalized 316(b) regulations require an assessment of social costs from closed cycle cooling
conversions. EPA describes an important social cost of cooling towers as arising from backpressurerelated
efficiency effects that lead to energy consumption, increased stack emissions and related
health impacts. These effects are expected to be studied in a detailed and peer-reviewable manner.
This presentation describes the importance of these effects with respect to the rule requirements and
demonstrates an approach for assessing the energy consumption effects of cooling towers using hourly
models of unit performance that account for unit-specific features and hourly variation in atmospheric
conditions that lead to differentials between once-through and cooling tower water temperatures.
Resulting implications for power systems, air emissions, and health and environmental effects are also
described.

EAI4.2 How to Address the Biological Studies Required as Part of the 316b Rule
Greg Seegert, Chief Ichthyologist, EA Engineering, Science & Technology; Ron King & Joe Vondruska
The recently issued 316b rule requires assessment of both impingement & entrainment. However,
because entrainment effects & mitigation must be addressed first, that is the focus of this talk. We
will discuss how to design a robust but cost-effective entrainment study. The rule requires that diel,
seasonal, & annual variability be addressed. Therefore we will present an approach to addressing
these components. We will discuss how the collection of field data to place entrainment losses into
perspective, though adding to the cost of the studies, will in many cases be highly desirable. The
current version of the rule places much more emphasis on threatened & endangered species. In
freshwater, most eggs & larvae cannot be identified to species. We will discuss the ramifications of this
uncertainty relative to T & E species. Because of this greater emphasis on T & E species, there certainly
will be more focus on freshwater mussels so we will provide recommendations for dealing with mussels.
The rule implies that collection of data regarding larval survival is both necessary & desirable. As we
will explain, in most cases the collection of such data is not needed. Lastly, we will discuss how EPA’s
concept of “fragile” species can be used to a facility’s advantage.

environI4.3 Imaging Sonar: An Innovative Tool for Fish Monitoring in Cooling Water Intake Structures
Peter N. Johnson, Sr. Research Scientist, LGL Alaska Research Associates, Inc., Stevenson, WA; Jonathan Leiman, Associate Fisheries Biologist, Environ International Corp., Arlington, VA
The purpose of the new Section 316(b) rule of the Clean Water Act is to minimize harm to aquatic
life that can get entrained into cooling water intake structures or impinged against screens. Waterintensive
industries are required to biologically monitor their intake facilities and demonstrate they are
using the best available technologies to reduce entrainment and impingement. To aid in evaluating
compliance, industries should employ the best available methods when conducting biological
monitoring programs. Multi-beam imaging sonar is an innovative fish sampling technology that has
recently been shown to be effective for assessing fish abundance, distribution and behavior in cooling
water intake structures. During periodic sample events in 2012-13, a Dual-frequency Identification
Sonar (DIDSON) was used to acquire streaming imagery data of fish in pump wells at a manufacturing
facility located in the Midwest with freshwater design intake flow of > 125 mgd and through screen
velocities < 0.5 fps. DIDSON data were used to estimate fish abundance, spatial distribution of fish,
and behavior of fish relative to screens and intake pipes. DIDSON data were also used in combination
with impingement data to assess the relationship between screen impingement and abundance, and
to infer estimates of impingement mortality. Sampling designs, suggested applications, advantages
and limitations of the methodology will be discussed and examples of imagery data will be presented.

VeritasI4.4 316b The Social Costs of Lost Flow
Matthew Bingham, Principal Economist, Veritas Economics; Jason Kinnell & Dawn Woodard
Recently finalized 316(b) regulations require an assessment of social costs from closed cycle cooling
conversions. The reduction in thermal discharge changes water quality (primarily temperature). This
may result in ecological improvements that should be discussed in the (r)(11) benefits report. However,
an important social-cost consideration is that thermal discharge often concentrates animals. This
results in winter fisheries, raptor hunting grounds, and manatee refuges, among other positive effects
for recreation. Moreover, in some cases cooling flow is responsible for high-quality oligotrophic
waterbodies and the loss of this flow can impact recreation and property values severely. These effects
should be discussed in (r)(10) cost report. This presentation discusses these effects, identifies scores of
sites across the country where such effects occur and describes methods for valuing these impacts.

mexelI4.5 WILL CLEAN WATER ACT 316B REGULATIONS END CHEMICAL COOLING WATER TREATMENT PROGRAMS?
Mary Wolter Glass, President, Mexel USA, LLC
The adoption of the new Clean Water Act 316b intake structure regulations issued in May 2014 adds a
new meaning and significantly expanded challenge to implement “green” technology in power plants.
In addition to a number of technologies endorsed by EPA for use to control impingement mortality, each
plant will also need to develop its own program to find the Best Technology Available to lower entrainment
mortality based on site-specific factors. Further, the determination of BTA will also include consideration
of economic and qualitative factors including plant efficiency. Current chemical-based programs to
control a wide range of fouling problems and ensure reliable operations will come under increased scrutiny.
The role of chemical treatment programs in the context of comprehensive compliance planning will
be examined. New regulations will allow state permit writer to look in every case at a wide variety
of factors that will be discussed. They will also review more closely at the use of chemicals and
justifications may need to be presented. Documentation on how the the chemicals can be used alone
or in combination with mechanical devices will need to be provided and documented as part of the
compliance research and planning process.

BurnsMcDonnellLogoI7.1 Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems in the Power Industry: An Innovative Design for Polishing of FGD Wastewater
Katie Bland, Senior Environmental Engineer, Burns & McDonnell; Paul Von Hertsenberg, Westar Energy; Chris Snider, Burns & McDonnell
From early 2011 through 2013, Westar Energy opted to construct and operate a Constructed Wetland
Treatment System (CWTS) Pilot Project to evaluate its success with metals reduction in FGD Wastewater.
Following success of this pilot project, and after detailed evaluations of a variety of options, Westar
teamed up with Burns & McDonnell to design and construct a full scale CWTS for polishing of 100% of
the plant’s FGD Wastewater. This system represents an emerging technology in the utility industry; while
CWTS are prevalent for other types of water treatment, they are fairly new to coal-fired power plants.
The full scale design utilizes a unique upflow design, mitigating ecological risk by reducing the risk of
wildlife exposure to the wastewater at the surface of the beds. Primary targets for removal through
the system include mercury and selenium. The system includes an equalization pond, two Vertical
Flow Beds (VFB), two Vegetated Submerged Beds (VSB), and associated pumps and instrumentation.
The design allows the plant to reuse CWTS effluent in the cooling towers as needed. This presentation
will examine the award-winning design project and will present full scale operating reductions in FGD
wastewater constituents. This technology represents an innovative, green option for certain water
treatment applications in the utility industry.

nrel I7.2 Life Cycle Water Usage for Photovoltaic Electricity Production: Manufacturing Water Requirements
Jordan Macknick, Energy and Environmental Analyst, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Garvin Heath & Ariel Miara
This work provides consolidated estimates of water withdrawal and consumption requirements for the
life cycle of photovoltaic (PV) systems, with a focus on component manufacturing. Life cycle data
were also collected for other electricity generating technologies for comparison purposes. Published
estimates were gathered through a broad search of publicly available sources, screened for quality
and relevance, and harmonized for methodological differences, when possible. Published estimates
can vary substantially, due in part to differences in production pathways, in defined study boundaries,
and in performance parameters. We find that median water withdrawal values for manufacturing
are around five times higher for crystalline silicon PV systems than for thin-film PV systems, median
consumption values for manufacturing are around thirteen times higher for crystalline PV systems
than for thin-film PV systems, operational water requirements of crystalline PV and thin-film PV systems
are similar, and the operational water requirements for PV technologies are generally lower than the
manufacturing water requirements. Compared with other electricity generating technologies, total
life cycle water use for PV systems are lower than all other technologies except for wind technologies.
This work provides the foundation for conducting water use impact assessments of PV systems and the
power sector as a whole while also identifying gaps in data that could guide future research.

scr techI7.3 Boiler Feed Water Dechlorination Using Hydro-Optic Ultraviolet Technology
Ken Jeffers, Manager, SCR Catalyst Services, Southern Research Institute; Jay Wos & Behrang Pakzadeh, Southern Research Institute; Dennis Bitter & Ytzhak (Itzik) Rozenberg, Atlantium
Technologies, Inc; .Tracy Underwood, Georgia Power Company; Richard Breckenridge, Electric Power Research Institute
Power Plants are faced with frequent membrane & micron-filter maintenance & replacement as
a result of bio & solids-fouling. Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane elements are easily damaged by
strong oxidants. As a result, free chlorine compounds must be removed from the feed water in order
for the RO system to operate properly. Dechlorination is typically achieved by passing feed water
through granular activated carbon filters or by injecting a sodium metabisulfite (SMBS) solution into
the feed water. Hydro-Optic™ (HOD) ultraviolet (UV) water treatment technology, manufactured
by Atlantium Technologies, Inc., is a dechlorination treatment alternative that would replace the use
of sodium metabisulfite, reduce the usage of chlorination, & achieve a chemical-free dechlorination
process. In March 2014, the Water Research Center (Plant Bowen, Cartersville, GA) began a threemonth
evaluation of the HOD UV technology for use as a chemical-free dechlorination approach.
The HOD UV treatment system decomposes the free chlorine oxidant in process water to protect RO
membranes. Additionally, the HOD UV technology provides disinfection to reduce the membrane
biofouling potential by eliminating anaerobic & aerobic bacterial growth. The HOD UV system
consistently met or exceeded treatment objectives. Test conditions & results of this chemical-free
dechlorination treatment approach to provide high purity feed water for the boiler & steam cycle will
be presented.

ripiI7.4 Treatment of Oil-contaminated Spring Water in a Village in Iran for Agricultural Usage
Karim Ghasemipanah, Senior Researcher, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI); Ebrahim Alaeei, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI)
The aim of this project is reduction of oily compounds from oil-contaminated spring water of a village
located in Iran for agricultural purpose with flow rate of 34 cubic meters per hour using the following
systems; CPI (Corrugated Plate Interceptor), DAF (Dissolved Air Flotation), two sand- anthracite filter
columns and one activated carbon column. The procedure involves the use of portable systems for
separation of free and emulsified oil based on floatation by passing contaminated water through
corrugated plate and injection of compressed air, respectively, using CPI and DAF systems and also
filtration and adsorption, respectively, using sand-anthracite filter and activated carbon systems. Using
these systems, oil concentration of about 120 ppm was decreased to reach water quality standards
for irrigation and agricultural use, which is oil and grease concentration of less than 5 ppm – the treated
water can be reused. Results showed that treated water has good quality for reusing as irrigation water.

I7.5 Water Footprinting & Mapping for Commercial/Industrial Facilities: Strategies for Water Conservation, Treatment, & Reuse
Hari Gupta, Principal Engineer, Coriolis Enterprises, Inc.
Water is among the most important, valuable, and limited commodities that is currently and in the
future expected to have enormous socio-economic impact in the lives of the global population.
Commercial/industrial facilities currently make-up a significant portion of the daily water consumption
in the developing and the developed world. As with energy, the biggest bang for the buck is realized
by efficient conservation and reduction in its use rather than investing in tapping new sources of
water which can be extremely cost prohibitive (e.g., treating seawater for use). Using the mantra
that what cannot be measured cannot be improved, this presentation will provide an overview of
methods of water footprinting and mapping for commercial/industrial facilities, strategies for water
conservation, reuse, treatment, and recycling of water/wastewater. Lessons learned from the field
and tips on conducting such water balance studies will also be presented. Challenges faced in water
conservation and reuse by typical commercial buildings and research laboratories to water intensive
industries such as the food and beverage manufacturing, textile, and metals manufacturing industry
will be briefly discussed with a discussion on water conservation best practices for the various industries.
An update on local and state water conservation regulations for California will also be provided.

 

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