Presentations from TRACK J: TRANSPORTATION at EUEC 2015, San Diego, CA
J1.1 Alternative Fuels Fleet Analysis to Reduce Fuel Costs & GHG Emissions
Kevin Wood, Project Manager, Clean Transportation, Center for Sustainable Energy; Randy Wilde
The Center for Sustainable Energy (CSE) has worked with the County of San Diego to analyze the fleet
adoption of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles to reduce fueling and maintenance
costs as well as greenhouse gas emissions. CSE developed a Green Fleet Action Plan for the County’s
3,500 vehicle fleet. This work identified vehicle replacements that would save the County $1M in annual
fuel costs and reduce carbon emissions by 3,000 metric tons per year. CSE will present highlights from
the Green Fleet Action Plan, discuss the importance of conducting fleet analyses and provide details
on the methodology used. The presentation will cover the following topics: Evaluation of alternative
fuel and advanced technology vehicle technologies for fleet use based on duty cycle and total cost
of ownership; Methods for assessing current fleet turnover, and budgeting for replacements, including
external funding opportunities; Conducting comparisons of greenhouse gas emissions reductions from
liquid and gaseous alternative fuels and plug-in electric vehicles
J1.2 Clean Vehicles Technology: fueling with H2 generated from alternative fuels
Dara Grigorova, CEO, Adventure AD
The constantly increasing demand for energy efficiency, lower “green gas” (CO2) and toxic emissions
require a new approach for reduction in the consumption of fossil fuels. There is a growing interest to
alternative fuels such as hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, biodiesel and natural gas. Biodiesel and natural
gas are abundant and lower cost alternative resources. A clean vehicle technology for fossil and
alternative fuels is offered by Adventure’s proprietary technology, H2GS for reforming of those fuels to
hydrogen (H2). Adventure’s H2GS is a multi fuel system which generates continuous flow of hydrogen
rich stream, on demand, and without the need for hydrogen storage. The H2GS can be utilized in
stationary internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells (FC). The H2GS system can be integrated
in motor vehicles. When used for fueling of ICE the H2GS offers better energy efficiency as the heat
energy released of H2/air mixture is 3 times higher than the intrinsic energy of natural gas and fossil fuels.
Reduction of fuel consumption up to 20% and significant decrease of “green gas” (CO2) and toxic
emissions (NOx is less than 5 ppm) are obtained. The system is largely independent of external power
source. Utilized for fueling FC the H2GS removes the current obstacle of the lack of infrastructure for H2
distribution, the H2 storage problems and the safety issues of H2 storage under pressure.
J1.3 The Development of California Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) Requirements to Support Climate Stabilization: Fleet-Emission Rates & Per-Capita Driving
Michael Bullock, Transportation Commitee Chair, San Diego Sierra Club
An Introduction shows the importance of LDVs. Climate crisis fundamentals are presented. Reference
year 2005 is identified. A climate-stabilizing greenhouse-gas (GHG) reduction target value, for 2030,
is calculated. The formula for GHG emissions, as a function of per-capita driving, population, fleet
CO2 emissions per mile, and low-carbon fuel standards is given. A mathematical relationship between
defined factors associated with these variables is derived. The factor of car-emission-per-mile driven,
for year 2015, with respect to year 2005, is obtained. Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) mileage values
from 2000 to 2030 are identified, as mandates or assumptions. A table estimates LDV fleet mileage, for
year 2015. Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) values to support a calculation of equivalent-fleet mileage with
a significant fraction of ZEVs (ZEV LDVs) are given. A table computes the LDV fleet equivalent mileage,
for year 2030. This table’s set of assumptions is dubbed the “Heroic-Measures” (HM) case. It includes
having the fraction of ZEVs sold quickly climb up to significant values. The equivalent fleet mileage
computed by this table is used, with population and the needed factor of emission reductions, to
compute a needed per-capita driving reduction, for 2030, with respect to 2005. Achievement policies
are described. Similarly, an “Extra Heroic-Measures” (EHM) case is defined. The electricity required to
power the HM case is estimated and compared to current usage.
J1.4 Improving Turn Times: Harnessing GPS Data for Drayage Truck Efficiency
Yair Crane, Business Development Associate, E2 ManageTech; Greg Alexander Senior Project Manager
A first of its kind innovative truck tracking system has been developed to track and report drayage
operations. Harnessing GPS data, E2 ManageTech, Inc. (E2) on behalf of the Harbor Trucking
Association (HTA) has captured drayage truck data in the largest port complex in North America.
Their goal: Provide an industry-wide metric for drayage truck turn times. Key to understanding when
and where delays occur, this reporting system illustrates time spent waiting outside a terminal and interminal
time. The system was created to provide an industry wide impartial data set that could be
used to track improvements in terminal visit times. With increased environmental compliance requiring
cleaner trucks and lower emissions, trucking costs have risen significantly over the past few years.
Consequently, any delays will directly impact the drayage operator’s bottom line. In October 2013, E2
and the HTA released data to the public. The data is made available monthly on a subscription basis
via the HTA’s website. This reporting system is highly expandable and can be deployed at other ports,
rail yards, and distribution centers.
J1.5 West Coast Electric Fleets
Randy Wilde, Project Associate, Center for Sustainable Energy
The speaker will explain the Pacific Coast Collaborative’s West Coast Electric Fleets initiative and
invite both public and private fleets to become a partner by pledging to incorporate Zero Emissions
Vehicles (ZEVs) into their fleet. The speaker will demonstrate the benefits of membership including a
growing online toolkit, technical assistance services, a network of peers willing to share knowledge and
experiences, and recognition as a leader in transforming the West Coast ZEV market.
J3.1 Multi-unit Dwelling Vehicle Charging – Challenges & Resources
Joel Pointon, Electric Trans. Manager, San Diego Gas & Electric
This era of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) have been on our streets since late 2010. But with 80% or
more of vehicle charging taking place at home, how do people who live in multi-unit dwellings (MuDs)
gain access to this essential part of the puzzle that enables them to consider a PEV as a transportation
option. Joel Pointon has been conducting workshops in this are for over five years, co-chairs the
California Plug-in Electric Vehicle Collaborative’s (PEVC) working group on MuDs and Workplace
Charging for more than 2 years and helped develop a free toolkit to assist those who are planning for
vehicle charging in these areas. Cities like San Diego and San Francisco have more than fifty percent
of their populations in one form or another of the spectrum of communities that comprise MuDs. What
are the challenges, what are the business models out there, where are the resources and case studies
available that can help these communities crack this challenge and enable these communities to start
driving electric? All of this will be covered by the speaker and examples provided for attendees that
will enable them to engage effectively with property managers, residents, regional planners, utilities,
J3.2 San Diego Regional Electric Vehicle Readiness Plan: Accelerating the Adoption of Plug-In Vehicles
Anna Lowe, Associate Regional Energy/Climate Planner, San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG)
The San Diego region was an early market for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), thus making it a forerunner
for facing barriers and finding solutions to wide-scale PEV adoption. Through a grant from the California
Energy Commission (CEC), the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG) established the
San Diego Regional Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Working Group, or “REVI.” REVI members included
San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E), local governments, electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE)
companies, and other stakeholders. The REVI was a collaboration that produced a series of EVSE best
practices and a regional readiness plan. Regional support for PEVs has resulted in 20 percent of all
PEV purchases in California occurring in the San Diego region, which represents only 8 percent of the
state population. The REVI plan provided resources and support for local jurisdictions, trainings and
education for electrical contractors and municipal staff. It also aligned San Diego regional efforts with
other regional and State efforts, in order to form a consistent and cohesive statewide network. The REVI
plan and best practices have been disseminated widely and utilized by governments and businesses
in and outside the San Diego region. Based on the success of this project, SANDAG was awarded
another CEC grant to expand regional readiness planning to all types of alternative fuels. The wider
alternative fuels readiness planning will run through 2016.
J3.3 How hybrid electric fleets boost sustainability and brand awareness
Edward Lovelace, Chief Technology Officer, XL Hybrids
With impressive stats such as 20% reduction in fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions, hybrid
electric vehicles are a smart choice for sustainability programs for commercial and municipal fleets. But
making the transition can be overwhelming with the myriad operational and financial considerations.
XL Hybrids’ Chief Technology Officer, Dr. Ed Lovelace, reveals the secrets to successfully deploying fleet
vehicles with electric drive technology. Ed lists the key questions to ask to drive your decision, including
the vehicle models in your fleet, typical routes, your company’s sustainability targets and more. During
this eye-opening session, you’ll discover the benefits of hybrid electric vehicles – from reduction in
carbon dioxide emissions and fuel savings to quick paybacks and the bonus PR opportunities. Discover
benefits of hybrid electric vehicles for fleets; Critical questions to ask to drive strategic decision; How to
leverage decision for branding and PR opportunities
J3.4 Electric Vehicles and Workplace Charging
Randy Schimka, Project Manager, Clean Transportation, San Diego Gas & Electric
Randy Schimka has acted as San Diego Gas & Electric’s point person on workplace and public
charging for the last few years. He is a resource to electric vehicle service providers as they increase
public and private charging in the region and offers consultation and best practice information to
them and their customers. You will learn why workplaces are choosing a mix of both Level 1 and Level
2 charging, how workplace charging increases the electric miles of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, the
range of power sources available, site selection, what that will do to the workplaces electric bill, and a
forward look at what the future holds for workplace charging.
J3.5 Have Electric Vehicles already won?
Andrew Went, Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute (CUSP)?
There is much more consensus on the need to get off oil than there is on what should replace it. One
theme that can be found throughout much of the literature is that, in the decades to come, vehicle
fleets will consist of a portfolio of powertrains. An alternative future to that is suggested here, one
in which EVs not only come to dominate the vehicle market, but that sees this transition occurring
more rapidly than many may expect. In arriving at this conclusion, a number of perspectives have
been considered, including; historical precedents, global dynamics, recent market developments,
emerging advanced manufacturing processes and other complementary technologies. Moreover,
within the narrative presented, it is suggested that the defining event that perhaps will be looked back
on as signaling the beginning of the end for non-EV’s, may actually have already happened.
J5.1 Design of a Hydrogen Fuel Analyzer
Edward Bramston-Cook, Principal, Lotus Consulting; Randall Bramston-Cook, Lotus Consulting; David
Blekhman, California State University, Los Angeles; Yu Chen, Tiger Optics, LLC
Impurities in hydrogen fuel can dramatically affect the performance and durability of fuel cells.
To maintain expected operations of fuel cells in motor vehicles, the Society of Automotive
Engineers has published specifications for the purity of the fuel, and the California Department of
Food and Agriculture, Division of Measurement Standards is set to monitor the quality of the fuel.
The design of a measurement system for assess most of the low level analytes is presented, with
J5.3 Commercially Viable Fuel Cell Telecom Backup Power Solutions
Kevin White, Director of Sales – Americas, Ballard Power Systems Inc.
Fuel cell backup power systems; a commercially-viable power solution providing clean reliable energy
generation. For telecom service providers occasional, prolonged power outages can be devastating.
Telecom backup power solutions based on Ballard’s proprietary fuel cell technology offer improved
network reliability, tangible durability, environmental and economic improvements over incumbent
technology. Telecom backup power systems are being driven by two distinct needs: (i) backup power
for regular, even daily, power outages in markets with unreliable electricity grids; (ii) backup power
for markets with reliable grids yet vulnerable to extended power outages in crisis situations, such as
extreme weather conditions. Learn how fuel cell power generation systems provide complete backup
power solutions for wireless telecom providers, and other critical networks. We will discuss how fuel cell
systems for backup power deliver solid reliability at an attractive lifecycle cost with important business
benefits not available from traditional power sources.
J5.4 Renewable & Sustainable Energy – Solar to Hydrogen For Fuel Cell Electricity
Thomas W. Oakes, PhD, CEO, Solar Hydrogen Energy Co
On-Site renewable and sustainable energy by harvesting solar energy for splitting water to derive
hydrogen, including hydrogen storage to feed fuel cells for producing useful electricity is being
offered by Solar Hydrogen Energy Co., La Mesa, CA. Hydrogen produced in this manner and stored for
household use can replace consumption of not only carbon based oil as fuel, but also replace wood
burning cooking of meals with its pollution in the home. A recent United Nations report focuses on
world wide energy problems — also relevant to USA — that on-site sustainable and renewable energy
can help to solve. United Nations report 1 August 2014 — The world faces a looming energy problem.
There’s not enough of it. It also faces a looming climate change problem. Answering this problem is
especially relevant for developing countries. Nearly half the world’s population lacks reliable access
to modern energy service and more than 20 percent – 1.4 billion people remains without access to
electricity, according to a recent UN Development Programme (UNDP) report. Household air pollution
from use of biomass fuel is expected to cause more than 1.5 million deaths a year by 2030. On-site
produced energy inquiring only sustainable small amounts of water to be split producing hydrogen is a
viable option addressing these problems.
J5.5 Performance of a Hydrogen Fuel Analyzer
Randall Bramston-Cook, Principal, Lotus Consulting; Edward Bramston-Cook, Lotus Consulting; David
Blekhman, PhD, California State University
Hydrogen fuel for transportation is becoming a reality as more vehicles are becoming available.
Environmental challenges in controlling automotive emissions are minimized, as hydrogen produces
no air pollutants or greenhouse gases when used in fuel cells. The major issue remains with
establishing the purity of commercial fuel. Specific impurities can dramatically harm performance
of fuel cells, and other gases reduce the energy produced. Various analytical approaches have
been proposed for measurement of these gaseous impurities in hydrogen, but only a combination of
chromatography and spectroscopy can properly assess nearly all of the target gases. The maximum
allowable concentrations all push performance capabilities of most of the detectors involved. Five
gas chromatographic detectors and four spectrometers provide sufficient selectivities and sensitivities
to detect the analytes at the mandated levels. Results from a typical analyzer system, with samples
drawn from an electrolysis-based fueling facility, are presented, including calibration curves saddling
the target levels and measured detection limits. Processes to generate gas standards at these low
levels are discussed in detail.
J5.2 Converting a 14-turbine Stranded Windplant to Produce Hydrogen Fuel from 100% of AEP
Bill LEIGHTY, Principal, Alaska Applied Sciences, Inc.
Alaska Applied Sciences, Inc. owns a small windplant of fourteen, 50 kW downwind, free-yaw wind
turbines in Palm Springs, CA. After delivering MWh to the SCE grid for twenty years, the windplant is
now stranded by expiration of the power purchase agreement (PPA). Each turbine is equipped with
a three-phase, 1800 rpm, 60 hp nameplate, squirrel cage induction motor as its generator. We are
experimenting with one turbine in Self Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) mode, whereby equal shunt
capacitance on each phase will cause the motor (generator) to self-excite as the wind-driven turbine
accelerates the unloaded machine above ~ 1000 rpm, into normal operating range. Load may then
be applied. We explored conditions under which stable operation may be achieved, as windspeed
varies at high and low ramp rates. Generator load is applied to the rectified output, to a resistive load
bank of variable R from 5 to 20 Ohms. A DAQ system logs DC bus output voltage and current into the R
load, plus generator winding AC volts and generator RPM. We intend to directly drive the electrolyzer
stack from the wind turbine DC bus, with minimum power electronics (PE) hardware and software, and
with minimum system control, for robust simplicity. This will require a novel automatic control system.
We intend to find a nearby customer for the gaseous hydrogen (GH2) fuel, probably compressed into
a tube trailer for delivery, for buses and / or the emerging fleet of fuel cell cars.